Yes, Nokia 1 does have the GPS support.
Nokia 1 has IP52 certification. It is not exactly waterproof but it does have drip protection.
No. Nokia 1 does not have fast charging support.
No. Nokia 1 does not have the fingerprint scanner.
The Nokia 1 is an inexpensive Android smartphone, and as you can tell from the Nokia 1 review, you very much get what you pay for.